net_left Kdata adver left

Gender Pay Equity Progress in US Is Slowed by Family Leave, Study Says

Tuesday, January 10, 2023
Gender Pay Equity Progress in US Is Slowed by Family Leave, Study Says © Bloomberg. AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - MAY 05: Secondary school teacher Sarah Ward at home on maternity leave with her three month old daughter Esme Kelliher, is in the last week of her paid parental leave allowance ahead of the New Zealand Federal Budget release, on May 5, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. New Zealand's Minister of Finance Bill English has announced that Budget 2015 will be presented on May 21, 2015. (Photo by Fiona Goodall/Getty Images)

(Bloomberg) -- Family leave policies, though limited in scope and typically unpaid in the US, have hamstrung the progress toward gender wage parity since the 1990s, according to an economic paper.

The policies, led by the federal Family and Medical Leave Act enacted in 1993 and other state-based programs, account for 94% of the stalling out of steady improvement that had taken place in the two preceding decades, according to economists Peter Blair, of Harvard University, and Benjamin Posmanick of St. Bonaventure University.

“During the 1980s, the wage gap between White women and White men in the US declined by approximately 1 percentage point per year,” Blair and Posmanick wrote in the paper, distributed by the National Bureau of Economic Research. “In the decades since, the rate of gender wage convergence has stalled to less than one-third of its previous value.”

The economists cite other research showing that parental leave, disproportionately taken by women, and other forms of flexible work arrangements, tend to have a negative impact on women’s career trajectories and pay. Their analysis accounts for changes in the composition of the US labor market, including an expansion of the low-wage service sector, where female workers are overrepresented.

Women made about 70 cents for every dollar earned by male workers in the 1990s — much more than in the 1960s, when they made just over half of what men did. Progress since then has been slower, with women today earning, on average, 83 cents for every dollar a man makes, according to Labor Department and Census Bureau data.

Blair and Posmanick estimate that without family leave policies, the gender wage gap in the US between White women and White men could have been eliminated in 2017.

©2023 Bloomberg L.P.

Leave your comment
HOT AUTO TRADE BOT SOFTWARE adver right
APPROVED BROKERS
net_home_top HOT AUTO TRADE BOT SOFTWARE
31-03-2024 10:19:50 (UTC+7)

EUR/USD

1.0793

+0.0006 (+0.06%)

Summary

Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (4)

Sell (8)

Indicators:

Buy (1)

Sell (5)

EUR/USD

1.0793

+0.0006 (+0.06%)

Summary

Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (4)

Sell (8)

Indicators:

Buy (1)

Sell (5)

GBP/USD

1.2624

+0.0002 (+0.02%)

Summary

Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (6)

Sell (6)

Indicators:

Buy (1)

Sell (6)

USD/JPY

151.38

0.01 (0.00%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (5)

Sell (1)

AUD/USD

0.6522

+0.0007 (+0.11%)

Summary

Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (0)

Sell (12)

Indicators:

Buy (3)

Sell (3)

USD/CAD

1.3543

+0.0006 (+0.04%)

Summary

Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (8)

Sell (4)

Indicators:

Buy (4)

Sell (1)

EUR/JPY

163.37

+0.12 (+0.07%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (3)

Sell (9)

Indicators:

Buy (1)

Sell (8)

EUR/CHF

0.9738

+0.0010 (+0.10%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (7)

Sell (2)

Gold Futures

2,254.80

42.10 (1.90%)

Summary

Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (11)

Sell (1)

Indicators:

Buy (5)

Sell (0)

Silver Futures

25.100

+0.002 (+0.01%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (8)

Sell (0)

Copper Futures

4.0115

-0.0003 (-0.01%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (11)

Sell (1)

Indicators:

Buy (7)

Sell (0)

Crude Oil WTI Futures

83.11

+1.76 (+2.16%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (8)

Sell (0)

Brent Oil Futures

86.99

+0.04 (+0.05%)

Summary

Neutral

Moving Avg:

Buy (6)

Sell (6)

Indicators:

Buy (2)

Sell (3)

Natural Gas Futures

1.752

+0.034 (+1.98%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (5)

Sell (7)

Indicators:

Buy (0)

Sell (6)

US Coffee C Futures

188.53

-2.12 (-1.11%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (0)

Sell (12)

Indicators:

Buy (0)

Sell (9)

Euro Stoxx 50

5,082.85

+1.11 (+0.02%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (0)

Sell (12)

Indicators:

Buy (2)

Sell (6)

S&P 500

5,254.35

+5.86 (+0.11%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (1)

Sell (11)

Indicators:

Buy (3)

Sell (8)

DAX

18,504.51

+27.42 (+0.15%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (9)

Sell (0)

FTSE 100

7,952.62

+20.64 (+0.26%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (0)

Sell (12)

Indicators:

Buy (0)

Sell (10)

Hang Seng

16,541.42

0.00 (0.00%)

Summary

Neutral

Moving Avg:

Buy (0)

Sell (12)

Indicators:

Buy (3)

Sell (1)

US Small Cap 2000

2,120.15

+5.80 (+0.27%)

Summary

Neutral

Moving Avg:

Buy (0)

Sell (12)

Indicators:

Buy (5)

Sell (4)

IBEX 35

11,074.60

-36.70 (-0.33%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (0)

Sell (12)

Indicators:

Buy (2)

Sell (5)

BASF SE NA O.N.

52.930

-0.320 (-0.60%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (9)

Sell (3)

Indicators:

Buy (6)

Sell (1)

Bayer AG NA

28.43

+0.01 (+0.04%)

Summary

Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (6)

Sell (6)

Indicators:

Buy (7)

Sell (1)

Allianz SE VNA O.N.

277.80

+0.35 (+0.13%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (9)

Sell (0)

Adidas AG

207.00

+2.30 (+1.12%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (6)

Sell (0)

Deutsche Lufthansa AG

7.281

+0.104 (+1.45%)

Summary

↑ Sell

Moving Avg:

Buy (4)

Sell (8)

Indicators:

Buy (0)

Sell (6)

Siemens AG Class N

176.96

+0.04 (+0.02%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (10)

Sell (0)

Deutsche Bank AG

14.582

-0.030 (-0.21%)

Summary

↑ Buy

Moving Avg:

Buy (12)

Sell (0)

Indicators:

Buy (7)

Sell (1)

 EUR/USD1.0793Sell
 GBP/USD1.2624Sell
 USD/JPY151.38↑ Buy
 AUD/USD0.6522Sell
 USD/CAD1.3543Buy
 EUR/JPY163.37↑ Sell
 EUR/CHF0.9738↑ Buy
 Gold2,254.80Buy
 Silver25.100↑ Buy
 Copper4.0115↑ Buy
 Crude Oil WTI83.11↑ Buy
 Brent Oil86.99Neutral
 Natural Gas1.752↑ Sell
 US Coffee C188.53↑ Sell
 Euro Stoxx 505,082.85↑ Sell
 S&P 5005,254.35↑ Sell
 DAX18,504.51↑ Buy
 FTSE 1007,952.62↑ Sell
 Hang Seng16,541.42Neutral
 Small Cap 20002,120.15Neutral
 IBEX 3511,074.60↑ Sell
 BASF52.930↑ Buy
 Bayer28.43Buy
 Allianz277.80↑ Buy
 Adidas207.00↑ Buy
 Lufthansa7.281↑ Sell
 Siemens AG176.96↑ Buy
 Deutsche Bank AG14.582↑ Buy
Mua/Bán 1 chỉ SJC
# So hôm qua # Chênh TG
SJC Eximbank7,910/ 8,080
(7,910/ 8,080) # 1,364
SJC HCM7,830/ 8,080
(0/ 0) # 1,364
SJC Hanoi7,830/ 8,082
(0/ 0) # 1,366
SJC Danang7,830/ 8,082
(0/ 0) # 1,366
SJC Nhatrang7,830/ 8,082
(0/ 0) # 1,366
SJC Cantho7,830/ 8,082
(0/ 0) # 1,366
Cập nhật 31-03-2024 10:19:52
Xem lịch sử giá vàng SJC: nhấn đây!
ↀ Giá vàng thế giới
$2,232.75-1.61-0.07%
Live 24 hour Gold Chart
ʘ Giá bán lẻ xăng dầu
Sản phẩmVùng 1Vùng 2
RON 95-V24.69025.180
RON 95-III24.28024.760
E5 RON 92-II23.21023.670
DO 0.05S21.01021.430
DO 0,001S-V21.64022.070
Dầu hỏa 2-K21.26021.680
ↂ Giá dầu thô thế giới
WTI$82.82+5.390.07%
Brent$86.82+5.180.06%
$ Tỷ giá Vietcombank
Ngoại tệMua vàoBán ra
USD24.600,0024.970,00
EUR26.020,0327.447,78
GBP30.490,4131.787,64
JPY158,93168,22
KRW15,9119,28
Cập nhật lúc 10:12:31 31/03/2024
Xem bảng tỷ giá hối đoái
adver main right